One of the first actions taken by America’s new Federal Government was about the authority of the Supreme Court issuing a Writ of Mandate for the placing of judge commissions for start up Federal Courts (Marbury v. Madison). Marbury was to be a new Judge. Madison was a new Secretary of State. A dispute with the political infrastructure transferring the title of possession by the two public officials became infamous.
The Supreme Court ruled and denied Marbury’s request. The court had limited authority to frame a ruling. Denying the Writ in the instant hearing reads English facts into law proving the conclusion. The case was final.
Without discussing the centuries old case (1803), the delivery of the document was lacking but it was visible within that early court. A lot of time has passed.
Some disputes were settled by two individuals with an affirmative office fixture known as —dueling pistols.